Scientific News


Coenzyme Q10 and Degenerative Disorders Affecting Longevity: An Overview 3

Coenzyme Q10 and Degenerative Disorders Affecting Longevity: An Overview

Abstract: Longevity is determined by a number of factors, including genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors. A major factor affecting longevity is the development of degenerative disorders such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, kidney disease and liver disease, particularly where these occur as co-morbidities. In this article, we review the potential role of supplementation with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) for the prevention or management of these disorders. Thus, randomised controlled clinical trials have shown supplementation with CoQ10 or CoQ10 plus selenium reduces mortality by approximately 50% in patients with cardiovascular disease, or in the normal elderly population, respectively. Similarly, CoQ10 supplementation improves glycaemic control and vascular dysfunction in type II diabetes, improves renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease, and reduces liver inflammation in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The beneficial role of supplemental CoQ10 in the above disorders is considered to result from a combination of its roles in cellular energy generation, as an antioxidant and as an anti-inflammatory agent.

Keywords: coenzyme Q10; oxidative stress; inflammation; diabetes; cardiovascular disease; chronic kidney disease and liver disease; mitochondria

Full Study


Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation in Aging and Disease

Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation in Aging and Disease

Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is an essential component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and an antioxidant in plasma membranes and lipoproteins. It is endogenously produced in all cells by a highly regulated pathway that involves a mitochondrial multiprotein complex. Defects in either the structural and/or regulatory components of CoQ complex or in non-CoQ biosynthetic mitochondrial proteins can result in a decrease in CoQ concentration and/or an increase in oxidative stress. Besides CoQ10 deficiency syndrome and aging, there are chronic diseases in which lower levels of CoQ10 are detected in tissues and organs providing the hypothesis that CoQ10 supplementation could alleviate aging symptoms and/or retard the onset of these diseases. Here, we review the current knowledge of CoQ10 biosynthesis and primary CoQ10 deficiency syndrome, and have collected published results from clinical trials based on CoQ10 supplementation. There is evidence that supplementation positively affects mitochondrial deficiency syndrome and the symptoms of aging based mainly on improvements in bioenergetics. Cardiovascular disease and inflammation are alleviated by the antioxidant effect of CoQ10. There is a need for further studies and clinical trials involving a greater number of participants undergoing longer treatments in order to assess the benefits of CoQ10 treatment in metabolic syndrome and diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders, kidney diseases, and human fertility.

Full Study


Bioavailability of coenzyme Q10 supplements depends on carrier lipids and solubilization 2

Bioavailability of coenzyme Q10 supplements depends on carrier lipids and solubilization

Objectives: Bioavailability of supplements with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) in humans seems to depend on the excipients of formulations and on physiological characteristics of the individuals. The aim of this study was to determine which factors presented in CoQ10 supplements affect the different response to CoQ10 in humans.

Methods: We tested seven different supplement formulations containing 100 mg of CoQ10 in 14 young, healthy individuals. Bioavailability was measured as area under the curve of plasma CoQ10 levels over 48 h after ingestion of a single dose. Measurements were repeated in the same group of 14 volunteers in a dou- ble-blind crossover design with a minimum of 4 wk washout between intakes.

Results: Bioavailability of the formulations showed large differences that were statistically significant. The two best absorbable formulations were soft-gel capsules containing ubiquinone (oxidized CoQ10) or ubiqui- nol (reduced CoQ10). The matrix used to dissolve CoQ10 and the proportion and addition of preservatives such as vitamin C affected the bioavailability of CoQ10. Although control measurements documented that all formulations contained 100 mg of either CoQ10 or ubiquinol, some of the participants showed high and others lower capacity to reach high increase of CoQ10 in blood, indicating the participation of individual unknown physiological factors.

Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of individually adapted selection of best formulations to reach the highest bioavailability of CoQ10 in humans.

Full Study


How coenzyme Q10 may reduce inflammation 7

 

It is well established that coronary artery disease (CAD) is associated with inflammatory processes and coenzyme Q10 may hold a promising role in reducing this inflammation by way of different mechanisms. A group of Taiwanese researchers from Chung Shan Medical University and the Intensive Care Unit of Taichung Veterans General found in a recent study that the nutrient successfully lowered levels of the inflammatory marker IL-6 (interleukin-6) in patients who were given a daily dose of 150 mg coenzyme Q10 for 12 weeks.

The study was conducted on 40 patients with coronary artery disease who were randomly assigned to three groups: a placebo group, a 60 mg/day coenzyme Q10 group, or a 150 mg/day coenzyme Q10 group. All groups followed the prescribed intervention for 12 weeks. Levels of inflammatory markers, including IL-6, C-reactive Protein, and homocysteine, plus superoxide dismutase (an endogenous antioxidant enzyme) were measured before and after.

Subjects in the 150 mg coenzyme Q10 group had significantly lower levels of IL-6 and malondialdehyde (a marker of lipid peroxidation). At the same time, subjects in both Q10 groups had increased superoxide dismutase activity, which is a sign of improved antioxidant protection.

On behalf of these findings, the researchers conclude that coenzyme Q10 taken at a dosage of 150 mg/day appears to decrease the inflammatory marker IL-6 in patients with coronary artery disease.

 

Source: Nutrition. 2012 Feb 16.


“Recharging” an energy-starved heart

Coenzyme Q10 can restore quality of life in patients with chronic heart failure.

 

Several published studies show that patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) benefit from taking supplements of the vitamin-like compound coenzyme Q10. The treatment enables their heart muscle to contract with greater force, their exercise tolerance increases, and they can generally enjoy life in a different way because they are less likely to feel the limitations of their condition.

CHF patients are normally categorized according to the New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Classification (see below), which places patients in one of four groups based on how limited they are during physical activity (in terms of breathing, shortness of breath, chest pain etc.

There are documented examples of CHF patients who have improved 1-2 NYHA classes as a result of receiving coenzyme Q10 supplementation in the range of 100-300 mg/day.

 

Source.:

 

 

NYHA Class                                      Symptom description

I          No symptoms and no limitations in ordinary physical activity, e.g. shortness of breath when walking, climbing stairs, etc.

II         Mild symptoms (mild shortness of breath and/or angina) and slight limitation during ordinary activity

II         Marked limitation in activity due to symptoms, even during less-than-ordinary activity, e.g. walking short distances (20-100 meters). Comfortable only at rest.

IV       Severe limitations. Experience symptoms even while at rest. Mostly bed-bound patients.

 

(Reference: The Criteria Committee of the New York Heart Association. Nomenclature and Criteria for Diagnosis of Diseases of the Heart and Great Vessels. 9th ed. Boston, Mass: Little, Brown & Co; 1994:253-256.)